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My guest this episode is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of The Drive podcast and is a world expert on behavioral approaches, nutritional interventions, supplementation and pharmacological techniques to improve lifespan, healthspan and athletic performance. We discuss how best to evaluate your health status using routine blood work, body scans and regular tests of physical strength and endurance. Dr. Attia explains what he uses with his patients to “back-cast” their health goals as a way to design their exercise and nutritional programs. We also discuss hormone modulation and replacement therapy for both men and women. We explain how cholesterol and related factors contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and how to monitor and mitigate that risk. Dr. Attia details various supplementation, nutrition, exercise and prescription approaches useful to people in every decade of life to improve vitality, reduce their risk of disease and increase the number of years sustaining peak cognitive and physical health.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Assessing Health Status & Improving Vitality  (00:02:51) Momentous Supplements  (00:03:46) Thesis, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep  (00:07:29) Lifespan: Bloodwork & Biomarkers Testing, The “4 Horseman of Disease”  (00:11:51) Healthspan: Functional Testing, Cognitive & Emotional States  (00:13:59) Blood Testing: Best Frequency  (00:16:01) DEXA Scan: Lean Mass & Fat, Bone Mineral Density & Osteoporosis  (00:22:33) Bone Mineral Density & Age-Related Decline, Strength Training, Corticosteroids  (00:29:24) Osteopenia & Osteoporosis Diagnosis, Strength Training (00:31:03) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:16) Back-casting: Defining Your “Marginal Decade”  (00:38:31) All-Cause Mortality: Smoking, Strength, VO2 max  (00:44:43) Attia’s Rule of Supplementation, “Centenarian Decathlete” Physical Goals (00:49:24) Importance of Exercise, Brain Health, MET hours  (00:55:23) Nicotine & Cognitive Focus (01:03:12) Menstruation, PMS & Menopause  (01:10:10) Hormone Replacement Therapy, Menopause & Breast Cancer Risk (01:22:06) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone Therapies in Women (01:26:35) Hormone Replacement Therapy in Men, SHBG & Testosterone, Insulin (01:37:23) Clomid, Pituitary, Testosterone & Cholesterol, Anastrozole, HCG (01:47:46) Fadogia Agrestis, Supplements, Rapamycin  (01:52:06) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Fertility  (01:59:26) Total Testosterone vs. Free Testosterone (02:02:51) Cholesterol & Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fat, LDL & HDL, Apolipoprotein B (02:17:42) Apolipoprotein B, Diet, Statins & Other Cholesterol Prescriptions  (02:25:15) Cardiovascular Disease, Age & Disease Risk  (02:28:53) Peptides, Stem Cells, BPC157, PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma), Injury Rehabilitation  (02:37:40) Metabolomics & Exercise  (02:40:44) GLP-1 & Weight Loss  (02:47:06) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I describe a comprehensive toolkit consisting of behavioral and supplement-based tools that you can customize to enhance the quality, duration and impact of your sleep. This has an enormous positive impact on your overall health and daytime functioning, brain, hormones and immune system. I teach you how to effectively harness light (and darkness), temperature, food, exercise, caffeine, supplements, and digital devices in order to fall asleep faster, stay deeply asleep longer and overall, and achieve better quality sleep. I also describe how these tools can be modified to recover quickly from a poor night’s sleep, jet lag or bouts of shift work. Given that sleep is the foundation of all mental health, physical health and performance, this episode should benefit everyone as it provides an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost strategies that can be tailored to optimize your sleep routine. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Tools to Optimize Sleep (00:03:02) Momentous Supplements (00:04:16) InsideTracker, Eight Sleep, LMNT (00:08:24) Factors to Control Circadian Rhythm & Sleep (00:15:10) Morning Tool: Morning Sunlight Viewing, Cortisol (00:20:44) Morning Sunlight: Circadian Rhythm, Artificial Lights, Cloudy Days (00:26:18) Evaluating Light in Environment, Compensating for Missed Morning Light (00:29:26) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:46) Morning Tools: Temperature & Deliberate Cold Exposure, Exercise (00:34:58) Timing Caffeine, “Afternoon Crash,” Exercise (00:40:08) Timing Eating, Alertness & Circadian Rhythm (00:45:20) 3 Daily Critical Periods (00:46:49) Afternoons: Naps, Deep Relaxation (NSDR, Self-Hypnosis), Exercise & Body Temperature, Caffeine (00:51:59) Afternoon Tools: Viewing Sunlight in Late Afternoon, Evening Light (00:56:45) Evening/Night Tools: Overhead Artificial Lights, Light Sensitivity (01:04:40) Evening Tools: Hot Bath/Sauna, Temperature & Sleeping Environment (01:09:40) Alcohol, THC & Reduced Sleep Quality; CBD, Anxiety & Falling Asleep (01:11:45) Sleep Supplements: Magnesium Threonate, Apigenin & Theanine (01:16:34) Melatonin Supplementation (Caution) (01:17:44) Additional Sleep Supplements: GABA, Glycine, Myo-Inositol & Anxiety (01:20:08) Falling Back Asleep: Reveri App, NSDR, Yoga Nidra (01:22:55) Staying Asleep: Eye Masks, Ear Plugs, Elevating Feet (01:24:58) Tool: Sleep Apnea & Nasal Breathing (01:28:20) Sleep Schedule Consistency, Weekends, Compensatory Sleep & Caffeine (01:31:14) Tools: Temperature Minimum & Jet Lag, Shift Work & Red Lights (01:37:38) Behavioral Tools for 3 Daily Critical Periods (01:39:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Huberman Lab Clips, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis’ research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman  Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation (00:03:24) Momentous Supplements (00:04:38) Thesis, Levels, ROKA (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus “Spotlight” (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort (00:33:38) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists  (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I explain the biology, symptoms, causes and types of bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar depression). I discuss neuroplasticity and how the brain normally regulates mood, energy, and perceptions; then, I contrast that with the biology of bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extremes of energy and mood, e.g., mania and depression. I outline the mechanisms through which bipolar disorder manifests in the brain, including deficits of interoception and reduced connections between the parietal and limbic systems. I also outline how treatment options (such as lithium) work in part through homeostatic plasticity.’ I discuss not only lithium but also the treatment of bipolar with ketamine, different talk therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and nutraceuticals, including Omega-3 and Inositol supplementation. This episode should interest anyone who has or knows someone with bipolar disorder and, more broadly, those interested in how the brain works to create a balance between thoughts, energy levels, focus, and mood. Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Bipolar Disorder (00:02:23) Momentous Supplements (00:03:42) Tool: Appetite Suppression & GLP-1, Parallel Pathways, Yerba Mate (00:10:23) InsideTracker, ROKA, Blinkist (00:14:24) Prevalence & Severity of Bipolar Disorder (00:16:30) Bipolar Disorder I, Diagnostic Criteria of Mania (00:28:58) Bipolar Disorder II, Individual Variability (00:33:07) Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II: Manic, Depressive & Symptom-Free States (00:38:20) Consequences of Bipolar Disorder, Heritability (00:46:53) Bipolar Disorder vs. Borderline Personality Disorder (00:51:51) Mania & Depression, Negative Impacts (00:53:06) History of Lithium Treatment (01:02:44) Lithium Treatment & Side-Effects (01:05:05) Effects of Lithium: BDNF, Anti-inflammatory & Neuroprotection (01:10:10) Neural Circuits of Bipolar Disorder, Interoception, Hyper- vs. Hypoactivity (01:17:11) Neural States & Mania, Parietal Lobe & Limbic System (01:22:58) Homeostatic Plasticity, Synaptic Scaling, Lithium & Ketamine (01:36:00) Talk Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Family-Focused Therapy, Interpersonal & Social Rhythm Therapy (01:43:18) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) (01:48:01) Psylocibin, Cannabis (01:51:50) Lifestyle Support, Supplements: Inositol & Omega-3 Fatty Acids (02:03:31) Omega-3s, Membrane Fluidity & Neuroplasticity (02:06:44) Mania, Creativity & Occupations (02:15:33) Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis, Neural Circuits & Treatment (02:17:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest this episode is Dr. Charles Zuker, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biophysics and Neuroscience at Columbia University and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Zuker is the world’s leading expert in the biology of taste, thirst and craving. His laboratory explores the mechanisms of taste perception, focusing on how our conscious and unconscious processing of specific foods and nutrients guide our actions and behaviors. We discuss the neural circuits of taste, the “gut-brain axis,” the basis of food cravings and the key difference between wanting (craving) and liking (perceiving) sugar. We also explore how taste perception relates to specific food satiety, thirst, to our emotions, and expectation. We also consider how sugar containing and highly-processed foods can hijack the natural balance of the taste and digestive systems. Dr. Zuker provides a true masterclass in the biology of taste and perception that ought to be of interest to anyone curious about how the brain works, our motivated behaviors and the neural, chemical perceptual aspects of the mind. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Charles Zuker & Taste Perception (00:03:05) Momentous Supplements (00:04:35) Thesis, ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:08:35) Sensory Detection vs. Sensory Perception (00:11:48) Individual Variations within Perception, Color (00:16:20) Perceptions & Behaviors (00:20:19) The 5 Taste Modalities (00:26:18) Aversive Taste, Bitter Taste (00:28:00) Survival-Based & Evolutionary Reasons for Taste Modalities, Taste vs. Flavor (00:30:14) Additional Taste Modalities: Fat & Metallic Perception (00:34:02) Tongue “Taste Map,” Taste Buds & Taste Receptors  (00:39:34) Burning Your Tongue & Perception (00:42:54) The “Meaning” of Taste Stimuli, Sweet vs. Bitter, Valence (00:51:55) Positive vs. Negative Neuronal Activation & Behavior (00:56:16) Acquired Tastes, Conditioned Taste Aversion  (01:01:44) Olfaction (Smell) vs. Taste, Changing Tastes over One’s Lifetime (01:09:14) Integration of Odor & Taste, Influence on Behavior & Emotion (01:17:26) Sensitization to Taste, Internal State Modulation, Salt (01:24:05) Taste & Saliva: The Absence of Taste (01:28:10) Sugar & Reward Pleasure Centers; Gut-Brain Axis, Anticipatory Response (01:36:23) Vagus Nerve (01:43:09) Insatiable Sugar Appetite, Liking vs. Wanting, Gut-Brain Axis (01:52:03) Tool: Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners, Curbing Appetite (01:54:06) Cravings & Gut-Brain Axis  (01:57:30) Nutrition, Gut-Brain Axis & Changes in Behavior (02:01:53) Fast vs. Slow Signaling & Reinforcement, Highly Processed Foods  (02:10:38) Favorite Foods: Enjoyment, Sensation & Context (02:15:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I explain the biological roles of the four major neuromodulators—dopamine, epinephrine (aka adrenaline), serotonin, and acetylcholine—and describe how these neuromodulators impact a wide variety of mental states and behaviors, including focus, creativity, motivation, drive, learning, alertness, mood, relationships, and feelings of well-being. Then, with that foundational understanding in mind, I describe a potent toolkit of science-supported behavioral, nutrition, and supplementation tools that can be used to increase baseline levels of individual neuromodulators and that can be modified for specific goals. This episode summarizes low-or-no-cost, actionable, science-based tools that can benefit anyone in order to enhance their levels of brain chemicals and improve mental health, physical health, and performance. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Optimizing Neurochemicals to Improve Health (00:03:40) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sleep & Maintaining Healthy Metabolism (00:09:52) Tools: How to Wake Up Earlier, Night Owls (00:19:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker (00:22:05) Nervous System Overview (00:31:32) How Neuromodulators Work   (00:34:24) Baseline Neuromodulator Levels, 3 Daily Phases (00:42:15) Hormones Modulate Neuromodulators (00:52:12) The 4 Major Types of Neuromodulators (01:01:45) Tool Kit 1: Increase Baseline Dopamine & Focus (01:08:52) Tyrosine-rich Foods & Dopamine (01:10:59) Dopamine Supplementation: Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine & Phenylethylamine (01:16:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:21:12) Tool Kit 2: Additional Tips to Increase Dopamine (01:26:10) Tool Kit 3: Increase Epinephrine (Adrenaline) & Alertness (01:34:34) Tool Kit 4: Increase Acetylcholine & Attention/Learning; Choline-rich Foods (01:37:29) Acetylcholine Supplements: Nicotine, Alpha GPC, Huperzine   (01:44:47) Tool Kit 5: Behavior to Increase Focus & Acetylcholine (01:46:56) Tool Kit 6: Behavior to Increase Serotonin & Feelings of Well-being   (01:50:51) Tools: Tryptophan-Rich Foods & Serotonin (01:53:31) Tools: Serotonin Supplements: Cissus Quadrangularis, 5-HTP, Myo-inositol (02:02:14) Use the Neurochemical Toolkit to Meet Individual Goals (02:06:44) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest this episode is Jeff Cavaliere, MSPT CSCS, a world-class physical therapist and Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. Jeff has coached athletes ranging from novice to professional and has taught science-based physical training protocols to tens of millions of everyday people via his enormously clear and actionable online programs. Jeff is a true expert on proper resistance and cardiovascular training, injury prevention and rehabilitation and has extensive knowledge on proper form, posture, nutrition and supplementation. We discuss how to best design and optimize a physical training program to achieve your specific goals. We also discuss how to build and leverage mental focus during workouts, when and how to stretch, pain management and enhancing workout recovery and sleep, and how to personalize your training and nutrition program over time. Jeff’s knowledge and science-based approach ought to benefit everyone in reaching their desired fitness, aesthetic and overall health goals. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Jeff Cavaliere, Physical Training (00:03:27) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Eight Sleep, ROKA (00:08:38) Tool: A Fitness Plan for General Health (00:13:27) Tool: Optimizing Body Part Training Splits (00:20:12) Two-a-Day Training (00:22:33) Cardiovascular Conditioning, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & Skills (00:28:24) Tool: Mind-Muscle Connection, The Cavaliere Cramp Contraction Test (00:35:05) “Muscularity” & Resting Tone (00:41:31) Tool: Muscle Recovery & Soreness, Grip Strength (00:50:39) Sleep & Sleep Position (00:57:24) Active (Dynamic) vs. Passive Stretching, Timing & Healing Muscle (01:07:23) Tool: Jumping Rope (01:12:56) Internal & External Rotation, Upright Row vs. High Pull (01:24:27) Back Pain Relief & Medial Glutes, Body Pain & Origins (01:37:39) Tool: Properly Holding Weights & Deepening Grip (01:43:54) Tool: Physical Recovery, Heat & Cold Exposure (01:47:19) Tool: Record Keeping for Training Performance & Rest Time (01:51:47) Nutrition Principles & Consistency, Processed Foods & Sugar (02:00:15) Tool: “Plate Eating”: Protein, Fibrous & Starchy Carbohydrates (02:11:25) Training in Men vs. Women, Training for Kids & Adolescents (02:18:05) Tool: Pre- and Post-Training Nutrition (02:26:30) Intensity & Training Consistency (02:29:53) AthleanX, Jesse Laico & Fitness Journeys (02:38:27) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, Eight Sleep (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder? (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity (00:15:10) Categories of OCD (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com - code "huberman" Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep (00:07:49) What is Movement? (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming” (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement (01:52:43) Walking Gaits (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode. Thank you to our sponsors Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching (00:02:57) Thesis, InsideTracker, Eight Sleep (00:07:22) Innate Flexibility (00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion (00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms (00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging (00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice (00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation (00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion (00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises (00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) (00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration (01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency (01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol (01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching (01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits (01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition (01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch (01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching” (01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises? (01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease (01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga (02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols (02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information. Thank you to our sponsors ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery  (00:02:30) ROKA, InsideTracker, Blinkist (00:07:00) Defining Trauma  (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion  (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal  (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist? (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies  (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling  (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences  (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist  (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity   (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs (00:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals  (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues   (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs  (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs  (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery     (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals   (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery  (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses) (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions  (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself” (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives. We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement  (00:03:44) Sponsors (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief  (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving  (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping  (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments  (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory  (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence  (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles  (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine) (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects   (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity  (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery  (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving  (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery  (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory (00:02:50) Sponors (00:07:27) How Memories Form  (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination  (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance  (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a “Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus”  (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)  (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory  (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol  (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise  (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition  (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors   (01:17:09) “Every Drop of Sweat Counts” – Exercise & Cognitive Function  (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood  (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance  (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention  (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking “mental snapshots.” I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory   (00:02:45) Sponsors (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory  (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation  (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory  (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation   (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus  (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement  (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline  (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol   (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline  (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation  (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory  (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle  (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis  (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability  (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement (01:37:29) Photographic Memory (01:38:49) “Super Recognizers,” Facial Recognition    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement (01:49:12) Déjà Vu (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory  (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones—estrogen and testosterone—in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ‘prime’ an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression (00:03:33) Sponsors (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, “Hydraulic Pressure Model”  (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)  (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression  (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression  (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression  (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors  (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood  (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort  (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity  (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression  (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior  (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the “Hydraulic Pressure Model” of Aggression  (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships  (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan.  Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick – Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure  (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements (00:05:30) Sponsors (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed  (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination)  (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges  (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2  (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation  (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression  (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements?  (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy  (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s  (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s  (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure  (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation  (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation  (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D  (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate  (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ‘Browning’, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle  (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna  (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood  (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk  (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)  (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity  (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility  (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin  (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Heat & Health (00:03:37) Momentous Supplements (00:05:46) Sponsors (00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature (00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia (00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA) (00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health (00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation (00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3 (00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism (00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure (01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure (01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna (01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood (01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool (01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism (01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure (01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure (01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health (00:05:17) Sponsors (00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy (00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light (00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues (00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals (00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin (00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects (00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels (00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen (00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone (01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone (01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance (01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain (01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) (01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function (01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months (01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure (01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light (01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization (01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing (01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) (01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss (01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure (02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work (02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection (02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health (02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization    (00:04:10) Sponsors (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health  (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health  (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone  (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1 (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss  (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto  (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility  (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer  (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein   (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil  (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM  (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats  (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels  (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage  (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P) (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic)  (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency  (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin  (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan  (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health  (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones  (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Timestamps (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work (00:11:32) Sponsors (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be? (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold – The Søberg Principle, Shivering (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
Comments (184)

ali ghahremanloo

majority of sources especially in early episodes are broken and can't be played due to unknown reasons so it would mean a world to us listeners if you fixed it. thanks

Aug 15th
Reply

BunnyBoo

I absolutely love your podcast! I wish I'd found it sooner but still I appreciate Castbox recommending it to me. My only request now is that you do an episode focusing on Misophonia? It is a horrible horrible disorder and only those who are affected by it know what I'm talking about, and yet not many studies have been done on the issue and as far as I know it's not even yet officially recognized as a legitimate disorder which is really frustrating since it actually destroys lives and can cause many other problems like depression and anxiety. It would be amazing if you talked about it, THANK YOU!

Aug 12th
Reply

omid talebi amiri

1h48min was so touching ...

Aug 10th
Reply

Msobhan

Why can't I download the episodes? Size of all of them is 0 kb.

Aug 2nd
Reply

Maria Skorobogatov

14:23 is when the podcast begins for folks wanting to fast-forward through the ads.

Aug 2nd
Reply

Miks

Great podcast, I am however disappointed that very little time was spent specifically on female hormones and how to balance them in normal women, variations due to cycle, pathologies other than PCOS... Especially PMS and PMDD which are extremely prevalent and not that much discussed at the molecular level. A disproportionnate amount of time was spent on optimizing testosterone in men. Maybe in another episode specific to female hormones?

Jul 15th
Reply

shirin Sh

Incredible!💯

Jul 5th
Reply

shirin Sh

perfect!🙏🏻💯

Jul 3rd
Reply

fatemeh shabanpour

Great podcast Thanks for helping people for free and really easy to access, best wishes and wait for your future podcast.

Jul 3rd
Reply

Hamid Reza Mazandarani

all episode about testosterone!

Jun 21st
Reply

Awais Butt

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Jun 12th
Reply

Sh.B Hoseynzadeh

Hi it's not played. Is there anything wrong with it?

May 31st
Reply (2)

Ma

episodes wont play

May 31st
Reply

Nathan Ewin

ashwarganda supplement inhibits cortisol

May 28th
Reply

Nathan Ewin

omega 3, triptophen foods

May 28th
Reply

Gabi Wiese

Nice Work! Andy

May 27th
Reply

Marjan Nabi

I can't play any episode here or Google podcast or spotify

May 25th
Reply (2)

Minnie Milad

i don't know why but none of these podcasts are playing for me.......😒😒😒

May 24th
Reply (1)

A

Memory nuggets

May 23rd
Reply

saeed Rafieyan

it seems this episode also has a problem.

May 21st
Reply
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