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ZOE Science & Nutrition

ZOE Science & Nutrition

Author: ZOE

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The world’s top scientists explain the latest health, nutrition, and gut health research and translate it into practical advice to improve your health & weight. Join ZOE Science & Nutrition, on a journey of scientific discovery.
Hosted by Jonathan Wolf.
132 Episodes
After the tragic news of Michael Mosley's passing, we are re-releasing our episode with him, originally released in March 2023:If you had to do just one thing to improve your health, what would it be?Our busy lives mean it can be difficult to keep up healthy habits, and with so much conflicting advice out there it’s tricky to separate fact from fiction. In today’s episode, Jonathan is joined by medical doctor, journalist, and presenter Michael Mosley, who is alongside ZOE regular Tim Spector, to discuss Michael’s four key habits to improve our health. Michael’s latest book ‘Just One Thing’ explores these habits and has seen him speak to singing scientists and eccentric iceman to healthy habit experts and evangelists. And of course, being Michael, he tried every habit out himself. We talk about which methods are the most effective, which he has incorporated into his life, and how he makes his new habits stick.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on InstagramTimecodes:00:00 Tim Spector's tribute to Michael01:01 Introduction01:55 Quick Fire Questions05:15 Are cold showers good for you?06:48 How long do you need to be immersed in cold water for the benefits to work?8:20 Can cold showers improve mental wellbeing?11:30 Potential dangers of cold water swimming12:45 Do cultural differences present different outcomes across the world?13:58 Can these small stressors help us?14:27 What is the theory behind this working?16:15 Will this work for everyone or is this very personalized?18:30 What effects does breathing have on your health?19:55 How breathing exercises affect our brain22:27 How do you keep up the breathing exercises?23:27 ZOE app breathing exercise25:40 Is there a difference between breathing through your nose and your mouth?27:20 How important are plants and nature for our health?30:25 Can exposure to nature improve things like mental health and even gut health?32:00 Can herbs also help improve our health?32:47 What are the benefits of exercise?33:30 What are endo-cannibinoids?34:41 Are preferences for exercise genetic?36:12 Is it endorphins that make us feel good after / during exercise?37:31 How exercise affects us is extremely personalized39:42 How do we encourage people who don't enjoy exercise to do it?41:13 Tips to improve your exercise routines44:08 Are there benefits to walking downhill?46:42 SummaryMichael Mosley’s book 'Just One Thing' is available to buy hereEpisode transcripts are available here
Meat consumption continues to be high in both the US and the UK. Yet many governments advise reducing meat consumption, particularly red meat, due to both environmental and health concerns. In this episode, we delve into the sizzling world of meat alternatives. They promise sustainability, animal welfare, and better health. Buzzwords like "plant-based" and "meat-free" proudly adorn their packaging. But are they actually healthy? Or should we consider them as ultra-processed foods and avoid them?Christopher Gardner is a Professor of Medicine at Stanford University and the Director of the Stanford Prevention Research Centre, and a world-leading expert in how the food that we eat impacts our health. Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:25 Quickfire questions03:50 What is a meat alternative?05:22 What's driving the trend for more alternatives?07:47 Should you eat less red meat?08:38 What is in meat alternatives?10:22 Traditional meats vs meat alternatives13:41 Are meat alternatives ultra-processed?14:47 Latest scientific studies23:56 What were the findings?29:48 Is the quality of the protein as good as real meat?34:00 Are meat alternatives healthy?38:53 Are whole food based meat alternatives healthier?40:05 What are the practical tips around meat alternatives?43:21 How do ultra-processed foods come into this?45:23 What are other ways people can transition away from red meat?50:33 What are the differences between bad and good quality meat?📚 Books from our ZOE Scientists:Every Body Should Know This by Dr Federica AmatiFood For Life by Prof. Tim SpectorFibre Fuelled by Dr Will BulsiewiczStudies referenced in today’s episode: Study With Appetizing Plantfood—Meat Eating Alternative Trial (SWAP-MEAT), published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. SWAP-MEAT Athlete (study with appetizing plant-food, meat eating alternatives trial) a randomized crossover trial, published in Nutrition Journal. Have feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know here. Episode transcripts are available here.
Periods are taboo! Despite the fact that half of the world’s population experience them. This taboo has led to countless myths around the topic. “The internet’s gynecologist” Dr. Jen Gunter is here to usher in a new era where people understand – and can advocate for – what they need as their body changes each cycle.Jonathan is joined by Dr Sarah Berry and Dr Jen Gunter to get a better understanding of our body's behavior during the menstrual cycle. Jen will provide you with her period toolkit and offer solutions to the most common problems of modern-day period health.Dr. Jen Gunter is a gynecologist and pain medicine physician at the Permanente Medical Group in northern California. Her books ‘The Vagina Bible’ and ‘The Menopause Manifesto’ were both New York Times bestsellers. Her 2024 book ‘Blood’ tackles the science, medicine and mythology of menstruation.Learn how your body responds to food. Take our FREE quiz and get 10% off here. Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:26 Quickfire questions02:31 Shame culture around menstruation04:20 The evolution and purpose of the menstrual cycle06:30 Menstrual cycle mechanics11:08 Understanding heavy periods and iron deficiency14:01 Addressing period pain and discomfort21:39 Diet, appetite, and periods: what's the connection?26:09 Understanding PMS and PMDD27:55 PMS causes and symptoms30:52 Treatment options for PMS and PMDD31:51 Demystifying polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)35:42 The role of diet and obesity in PCOS37:32 Advice for managing PMS40:19 Menstrual cramps and pain management47:08 Iron supplementation strategies📚 Dr. Jen Gunter’s books:The Menopause ManifestoBlood: The Science, Medicine, and Mythology of Menstruation📚 Books from our ZOE Scientists:Every Body Should Know This by Dr Federica AmatiRecipes for a Better Menopause by Dr Federica AmatiFood For Life by Prof. Tim SpectorStudies related to today’s episode:Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in US Females Aged 12-21 Years, 2003-2020, from the Journal of the American Medical AssociationThe Role of Estrogen in Insulin Resistance: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data, from The American Journal of PathologyHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know hereEpisode transcripts are available here.
55 million people suffer dementia worldwide with numbers expected to double every 20 years. Understanding the link between our heart health and brain function is critical, illuminating the profound impact that heart health has on preventing dementia.Dr. William Li, an expert in cardiovascular and metabolic health. He reveals how caring for our heart is not just about longevity but maintaining sharp, effective brain function as we age. His groundbreaking work has impacted more than seventy diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. Dr. Li is also a New York Times best-selling author.In today’s episode, Dr. Li explains how simple lifestyle choices in diet, exercise and sleep can drastically shape our brain's health and stave off dementia.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on InstagramTimecodes00:00 Introduction01:23 Quickfire questions03:30 Understanding dementia and Alzheimer's disease04:50 Dementia versus ageing06:35 The role of blood vessels in brain health07:55 How circulation affects brain function09:23 What causes blood clots and strokes?11:06 The importance of maintaining healthy blood vessels12:15 The impact of lifestyle choices on brain health15:01 What happens in our brains when we sleep?19:35 What is the glymphatic system?22:40 Vascular dementia may be the most common form of dementia24:35 The role of glucose in brain function27:10 What causes dementia and why does it happen when we get older?29:00 Preventing dementia with lifestyle changes31:10 What are healthy blood vessels like?37:50 The surprising role of EPCs in brain repair41:30 Can you slow down or reverse dementia?52:08 The connection between gut health and brain health51:40 The importance of exercise for brain health56:30 How to avoid dementia01:01:16 The link between mental health and cardiovascular disease📚 Dr. William Li’s books:Eat to Beat Disease Eat to Beat Your Diet📚 Books from our ZOE Scientists:Every Body Should Know This by Dr Federica AmatiFood For Life by Prof. Tim SpectorRelevant studies:A human brain vascular atlas reveals diverse mediators of Alzheimer’s risk, published in NatureHeart-brain connections: Phenotypic and genetic insights from magnetic resonance images, published in ScienceCocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial, published in The American Journal of Clinical NutritionHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know 
Inflammation is a complicated topic. Short-term inflammation plays an essential role in fighting infections and healing injuries. But too much inflammation can be a catalyst for chronic ailments, like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity.What we eat can influence our inflammatory responses and contribute to chronic, low-grade inflammation.In today’s episode, Prof. Philip Calder helps us understand the science behind inflammation, how it impacts our health and what food has to do with it.Philip is head of the School of Human Development and Health, as well as a Professor of Nutritional Immunology, in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton. He’s also an internationally recognised researcher on the metabolism and functionality of fatty acids. His work focuses on the roles of omega-3 fatty acids and the influence of diet and nutrients on immune and inflammatory responses. If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes00:00 Introduction01:20 Quickfire questions02:55 The role of inflammation in immunity05:30 Chronic inflammation and disease08:30 How to measure inflammation09:53 Low-grade inflammation and disease risk12:30 What causes blood vessel inflammation?15:23 What creates the narrowing of blood vessels?17:20 How inflammation can cause blood clots, heart attacks and strokes19:15 Inflammation and aging21:40 Inflammation and lifestyle factors25:07 Obesity and inflammation28:45 Muscle loss and inflammation (sarcopenia)30:52 The impact of meals, sugar and fats on inflammation33:35 How diet could reduce inflammation34:42 Why we all respond to food differently38:42 Dietary choices to manage inflammation40:00 What are omega-3s?41:17 Anti-inflammatory foods43:40 Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids45:55 Challenges with farmed salmon📚 Books from our ZOE Scientists:Every Body Should Know This by Dr Federica AmatiFood For Life by Prof. Tim SpectorMentioned in today's episode:Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Nutrition or pharmacology? in the British Journal of Clinical PharmacologyOmega-6 fatty acids and inflammation in PLEFAOmega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes in Nutrients Another relevant study:Health relevance of the modification of low-grade inflammation in ageing and the role of nutrition in Ageing Research ReviewsHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know hereEpisode transcripts are available here.
The menopause transition can bring unexpected challenges — the effects can significantly impact daily life and long-term health.Dr. Mary Claire Haver is a board-certified gynaecologist and a menopause specialist. She's helped thousands of women in perimenopause and menopause to realise their health goals. In today’s episode, she joins Jonathan and ZOE's Chief Scientist Dr. Sarah Berry to shed light on what to expect during these life stages.Sarah and Mary Claire describe practical strategies for managing symptoms, critical conversations to have with healthcare providers, and how to advocate for yourself effectively in medical settings.Follow Mary Claire on Instagram.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on Instagram. Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:33 Quickfire questions05:53 There is a lack of menopause training in medical school07:02 Most women are going into menopause blind07:43 Why menopause symptoms vary09:30 The hormonal ‘zone of chaos’11:45 ZOE PREDICT data on menopause symptoms13:36 How long do perimenopause symptoms last?17:52 Perimenopause at age 35?18:34 Why hormone tests are worthless20:53 The risk of chronic disease after menopause24:53 Why does menopause increase hunger?28:39 Why medicine and research is male-dominated32:34 How to talk to your doctor about menopaue34:12 Pregnancy research - 10x more extensive than menopause research!35:14 Mary Claire’s toolkit of strategies for menopause36:34 What are the long-term health benefits of hormone replacement therapy? 38:36 Is HRT safe for most women?42:47 Brand new ZOE study results: diet and menopause49:16 Top 3 tips to help with symptoms54:34 What is ‘frozen shoulder’ and how can you treat it?📚 Mary Claire's bookThe New Menopause📚 Books from our ZOE ScientistsEvery Body Should Know This by Dr Federica AmatiFood For Life by Prof. Tim SpectorMentioned in today's episodeMenopause transition and cardiovascular disease risk: Implications for timing of early prevention: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association in CirculationThe controversial history of hormone replacement therapy in MedicinaDr. Vonda Wright’s websiteHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know hereEpisode transcripts are available here.
In today’s episode we’re uncovering the medicines hiding in your kitchen. Molecular biologist Kanchan Koya joins Jonathan and Sarah to explore the incredible health benefits of spices. From controlling blood sugar to soothing a sore throat, we’ll discover what the latest research says about household favorites including ginger, cinnamon and cloves.  Kanchan Koya is a food scientist, founder of the spice-centric food blog Chief Spice Mama and author of the cookbook ‘100 Recipes with Healing Spices for Your Family Table’. She will show us how to get the most out of spices, with simple cooking tips and delicious recipes. Want to make Kanchan’s show stopper spice dish? Find the recipe here.Follow Kanchan on Instagram.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:26 Quickfire questions03:08 What are spices?03:43 Polyphenols in spices07:25 Spices and your health11:01 Cinnamon and blood sugar control14:49 Anti-inflammatory benefits of spices21:08 A practical guide to using spices31:40 Reviving old spices33:11 The wonders of ginger: from morning sickness to gut health35:56 Spiced cooking tips37:41 Breakfast ideas: add spices to start your day39:44 Simple spicy snacks42:05 Dinner delights: spicing up main meals44:11 Spices for kids46:24 Spiced drinks: from chai to golden milk48:24 The ultimate spice dishStudies related to today’s episode:Safety and efficacy of curcumin versus diclofenac in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized open-label parallel-arm study published in Trials Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove, published in Avicenna Journal of PhytomedicineEffect of cinnamon spice on continuously monitored glycemic response in adults with prediabetes published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Star anise (Illicium verum): Chemical compounds, antiviral properties, and clinical relevance published in Phytotherapy Research Ginger-Mechanism of action in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, published by Critical Reviews in Food Science and NutritionHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know hereEpisode transcripts are available here.
Did you know that even at age 70, with the right nutrition, you could potentially extend your life by 6 years?In today’s episode, we learn that it's never too late to change your diet for the better. Dr. Federica Amati, ZOE’s Head Nutritionist, dives into the unique nutrition needs at every life stage.From the golden windows of opportunity that can transform your health, to practical food recommendations for adolescence, adulthood and beyond, Dr. Amati gives tips to enhance your wellbeing.Dr. Federica Amati is a researcher at King’s College London and registered nutritionist. She is also lecturer and Nutrition Topic Lead at Imperial College School of Medicine. Federica empowers people with accessible, practical knowledge to make informed choices on diet and lifestyle and to improve health based on unique needs and preferences, at every stage of life.Follow Dr. Federica Amati on Instagram If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your membership.Follow ZOE on InstagramTimecodes00:00 Introduction01:17 Quickfire questions03:32  The first window of opportunity is before you are born06:04 It takes two to tango: equal roles in conception07:25 The science behind sperm health and diet09:10 What is life course nutrition?10:35 Why generic nutrition advice isn't enough13:00 Critical changes in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy16:25 Nutritional needs in the second trimester of pregnancy17:20 Preventing allergies during pregnancy20:30 Nutrition in childhood and adolescence21:00 The importance of a diverse diet for teenagers22:57 Children learn to eat from us: exposure is key25:10 The impact of ultra-processed foods on teenagers27:40 Do you need to eat meat to grow well?32:55 Lifestyle choices in your 30s affect long-term health36:00 Longevity supplement myths37:40 Gut microbiome changes in adulthood43:28 How to extend your lifespan through diet at any age46:05 Preparing for healthy aging and avoiding 'Sniper Alley'50:10 How to eat right in your 70s and beyond54:22 Protein needs as you age56:30 Becoming a ZOE member is like having a nutritionist in your pocket!59:20 SummaryMentioned in today's episode:Life expectancy can increase by up to 10 years following sustained shifts towards healthier diets in the United Kingdom, published in Nature FoodThe Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), published in American Journal of Lifestyle MedicineA single serving of mixed spices alters gut microflora composition: a dose–response randomised trial, published in NatureBooks:Every Body Should Know This by Dr. Federica AmatiHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know hereEpisode transcripts are available
Every 12 years, our skeletons undergo a complete transformation.Prof. Tim Spector and Prof. Cyrus Cooper discuss how to avoid Osteoporosis, a condition where bones become fragile, significantly increases the risk of fractures from minor incidents, often without any noticeable symptoms. Worldwide, it affects one in three women and one in five men over fifty, leading to pain, potential disability and loss of independence.In today’s episode, Jonathan, Tim and Cyrus ask the question: How can understanding osteoporosis and implementing targeted lifestyle changes enhance bone health and reduce the risk of fractures?Cyrus Cooper is a Professor of Rheumatology at the University of Southampton, where he is also the Director of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and Vice-Dean of Medicine. In addition, he’s a Professor of Musculoskeletal Science at the Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences at the University of Oxford.Tim Spector is one of the world’s top 100 most-cited scientists, a professor of epidemiology, and scientific Co-Founder at ZOE. Tim trained originally in rheumatology and epidemiology. Make smarter food choices for your body: Tim on Instagram.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalised nutrition program.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes00:00 Introduction01:21 Quickfire questions03:08 What is osteoporosis?06:10 Why might our bones become more fragile as we age?08:10 Your skeleton renews itself all the time10:30 Does menopause cause osteoporosis?12:48 What's it like living with osteoporosis?15:16 How common is osteoporosis in males?16:04 What are the symptoms of osteoporosis and at what age should you get checked?21:40 Some chilling statistics about osteoporosis23:10 Common myths about the effects of calcium and vitamin D on osteoporosis27:50 What is the latest science on vitamin D supplementation?34:10 Can vitamin D and calcium ensure children’s bone density is healthy?34:55 Osteoporosis treatment options, including new drugs    37:20 The impacts of HRT on bone density39:30 What are the downsides to some of these treatments?43:00 Does physical activity help to prevent fractures?44:30 Lifestyle impacts: diet and nutrition49:40 Can exercise make your bones stronger?55:20 Ideal exercises to prevent osteoporosis57:10 Cyrus and Tim’s top 3 actions to improve bone health59:10 SummaryMentioned in today's episode:Accumulation of risk factors associated with poor bone health in older adults, published in Archives of OsteoporosisRelevant studies:Influence of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral content, bone turnover markers and fracture risk, published in Journal of Bone and Mineral Researcha...
What we learned from the world’s biggest intermittent fasting study. Did you know that intermittent fasting can have significant health benefits? By aligning your eating schedule with your body's natural rhythms, it can bolster heart health, enhance insulin sensitivity, and support weight loss.In today’s episode, Jonathan, Prof. Tim Spector, and Gin Stephens dive into the world of intermittent fasting, with a focus on time-restricted eating. Gin shares essential tips for beginners and explains what it takes to be successful. Tim explores the groundbreaking findings of The Big IF Study from 2022, the largest exploration of intermittent fasting to date. They also unpack controversies and describe who might want to avoid fasting.Gin Stephens is an intermittent fasting advocate, New York Times bestselling author, and podcast host. Gin has been living the intermittent fasting lifestyle since 2014.Follow Gin on Instagram.Tim Spector is a professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London, director of the Twins UK study, scientific co-founder of ZOE, and one of the world’s leading researchers. Follow Tim on Instagram.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Want ZOE Science & Nutrition’s top 10 tips for healthier living? Download our FREE guide.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:01:25 Quick fire questions03:25 What is intermittent fasting?04:35 What are the most common types of fasting?06:00 The circadian rhythm and fasting08:22 The Big IF study explanation and results13:41 Breakfast misconceptions explained16:01 How do the Big IF study results compare to other research?18:56 What are the health benefits of sticking to the Big IF study?24:00 What is Tim’s intermittent fasting schedule like?25:40 Jonathan's experience with the Big IF study28:04 What is metabolic flexibility?32:43 Practical advice for getting started.35:40 Cephalic phase insulin response40:30 Is there an ideal length for an eating window and time to start?43:20 Can you eat whatever you want?44:30 Can people over 70 years of age fast safely?51:21  SummaryMentioned in today's episode:Flipping the metabolic switch: Understanding and applying the health benefits of fasting in ObesityThe Big IF Study Books by Gin Stephens:28-day Fast Start: Day By DayFast. Feast. Repeat. Have feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know 
Our bodies naturally follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, called our circadian rhythm. And every cell has a rhythm.As we get older, we tend to lose muscle, making us more prone to falls and less able to live independently. Though we can't stop aging, staying active helps keep our muscles strong and our bodies healthy for longer.Prof. Karyn Esser is a specialist in how the body's natural rhythms affect muscles. Today, she guides us through the latest research and shows that it's always possible to harness the power of your muscles to enhance your quality of life. She is a professor in the Department of Physiology and Aging at the University of Florida, where she’s also the co-director of the University of Florida Older Americans Independence Center.In today's episode of ZOE Science & Nutrition, Jonathan and Karyn explore the body's internal clocks and ask: why do our muscles have their own schedule, and is there an ideal time of day to exercise?If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Want ZOE Science & Nutrition’s top tips for better gut health? Download our FREE gut guide.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes00:00   Introduction00:18    Quickfire questions02:01    Why are muscles important, particularly as we get older?08:45   Why we all lose strength as we age11:07    What type of exercise do we need to maintain our muscle strength as we age?14:55    What is a circadian clock?19:25    Everything has a circadian rhythm21:32    Why do our muscles work on a 24-hour cycle?24:20    Humans are stronger in the afternoon30:24    Is there a best time to exercise?35:01    Can exercise before or after work help shift workers with jet lag?37:33    Is there a difference between men and women’s responses to circadian rhythms?  41:44    What are the effects of time-restricted eating on muscle mass?53:42    SummaryMentioned in today's episode:Defining the age-dependent and tissue-specific circadian transcriptome in male mice from Cell ReportsRelated studies: Timing is everything: Circadian clocks set the rhythm for vital functions in bacteria from the University of ChicagoEffects of resveratrol on in vitro circadian clock gene expression in young and older human adipose-derived progenitor cells in AgingAge is associated with dampened circadian patterns of rest and activity: The Study of Muscle, Mobility and Aging (SOMMA) in medRxivHave feedback or a topic you'd like us to cover? Let us know 
How early should you start taking dementia seriously? Here’s 5 things you can do now to reduce dementia risk today.Professor Claire Steves and Jonathan Wolf explore the multifaceted world of dementia. They delve into the significance of dental health, genetics, diet, and physical activity — plus, they unpack the latest research — to give you practical strategies for preventing dementia.Claire is a consultant physician in geriatric medicine at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust. She’s also a senior clinical lecturer at King's College London and deputy clinical director of the institution’s Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology where she leads research on the characterization of physical and mental aging traits and frailty.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Get the FREE ZOE gut health guide — download hereFollow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 - Introduction01:26 - Quickfire questions on dementia02:42 - Main discussion: understanding dementia04:18 - Control over fate with dementia06:52 - Why older people get more fractures08:32 - Warning signs of dementia09:55 - Unique aspects of dementia12:12 - Cellular level discussion on dementia15:49 - Risk factors for dementia16:07 - Inheritance and dementia18:29 - High-risk factors for dementia19:15 - Fetal development and dementia risk21:47 - Brain reserves and mental health24:24 - New advances in dementia treatment30:47 - Medications and life expectancy33:21 - Diet and dementia prevention35:58 - The role of physical activity39:45 - Oral health and dementia42:10 - Social interaction and brain health44:02 - Diabetes and dementia45:36 - Women, HRT, and dementia49:09 - Recap: Types of dementia53:39 - Hearing aids and dementia prevention55:39 - Episode sign-offStudies related to today’s episode:Brain-age is associated with progression to dementia in memory clinic patients from NeuroImage ClinicalFind our top 10 tips for healthier living: Download our FREE guide.Are you interested in a specific aspect of dementia? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it.Episode transcripts are available here.
In today’s episode, we’re talking about a disease so widespread that it touches nearly every family in some way: type 2 diabetes. It’s not just a health issue, it's a rapidly expanding crisis. And many people don’t know that they have it. In the U.S. alone, 100 million people have prediabetes, and more than 37 million have type 2 diabetes, a chronic condition with life-altering effects.Prof. Naveed Sattar joins us to shed light on preventing, treating, and potentially reversing type 2 diabetes. Naveed is a medical doctor and Professor of Metabolic Medicine at the Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences at the University of Glasgow. He’s one of the world’s top 1% most cited clinical scientists, and he’s worked on many clinical trials of lifestyle changes and drugs to prevent and manage diabetes. Learn your diabetes risk score:If you’re in the U.K. click here. If you’re in the U.S. click here. Get the FREE ZOE gut health guide — download hereFollow ZOE on InstagramTimecodes:00:00 Introduction01:00 Topic introduction02:28 Quick fire questions05:33 What is blood sugar and why does it matter?07:15 What is insulin and what is its relation to blood sugar and diabetes?08:48 Why doesn't the body allow sugar to increase in the blood?10:45 What happens when somebody gets pre-diabetes or type 2?14:34 What is HBA1C?17:08 Why has there been such an increase in diabetes?23:05 How does muscle mass have any impact on diabetes?24:54 Are risks different between men and women?27:08 How does ethnicity come into this?31:04 What other personal risk factors are there?32:29 What are the symptoms of diabetes?33:53 When do these symptoms begin?35:09 What should you do if you have concerns?36:33 How to find out your own likelihood of risk38:34 How can we avoid getting diabetes?42:10 How can we combat genetic risk factors?44:26 Is it possible to lower blood sugar and reverse the effects of diabetes?47:18 What is the science behind the new drugs coming on the market?49:20 Summary53:39 OutroMentioned in today’s episode: Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): An open-label, cluster-randomised trial in The LancetIs there a nutrition topic you’d like us to explore? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it.Episode transcripts are available here.
Do you know what SIBO is and how it could be affecting your health?In today’s episode, Jonathan and Dr. Will Bulsiewicz dive into the world of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), a condition that may underlie common health issues ranging from irritable bowel syndrome to brain fog. Together, they tackle myths and share insights into SIBO diagnosis and treatment. Could rebalancing your gut microbiome be the answer you've been searching for?Dr. Will Bulsiewicz is board-certified in internal medicine and gastroenterology. He’s also a New York Times bestselling author. Dr. B has won multiple awards and distinctions for his work as a clinician. If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.ZOE's FREE gut health guide - download it here.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes00:00   Introduction to SIBO01:01 What is SIBO?02:43 An overgrowth of bacteria03:41 SIBO Myth #1 debunked04:34 What is the link between SIBO and other diseases?06:12 What are the challenges with SIBO Testing06:48 Understanding testing methods07:08 Myth #2 debunked08:28 The issues with breath testing for SIBO11:38 What are the root causes of SIBO14:35 What is the impact of medication on SIBO?16:12 Dietary management and low FODMAP diet17:45 Probiotics and SIBO management18:00 Myth# 3 debunked19:55 VerdictMentioned in today’s episode: Fiber supplementation protects from antibiotic-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis by modulating gut redox potential from Nature CommunicationsOur earlier podcast on the low-FODMAP diet Is there a nutrition topic you’d like us to explore? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it. Episode transcripts are available here.
Are you navigating the twists and turns of perimenopause and beyond? Traditional exercise advice often misses the mark for women in this phase, mostly because its source is research focused on men. In today’s episode, we're joined by the acclaimed Dr. Stacy Sims, a leading expert on women's exercise science. Stacy delves into how menopause affects our exercise responses, and she offers strategies to adapt your fitness routine for optimal health during and after menopause.Ready to transform your approach to health and fitness? Tune in for expert insights and actionable tips.Dr. Stacy Sims is an exercise physiologist and nutrition scientist who researches exercise performance and nutrition with a focus on women’s health and performance. She holds a Ph.D. in exercise physiology and sports nutrition from the University of Otago, and she did a postdoc at Stanford, where she remains an adjunct faculty member. Stacy is also a research associate at the AUT Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand.Follow Dr. Stacy Sims on Instagram, and find her podcasts here. If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Follow ZOE on Instagram. Get the FREE ZOE gut health guide — download hereTimecodes:00:00     Introduction00:34     Quickfire questions03:39    Menopause and perimenopause explained08:23    What happens when oestrogen levels change?11:28    When does perimenopause start to happen?14:15    What is the role of exercise in menopause?17:00    What are hot flushes?20:20    How can exercise have a positive impact on menopause?21:57    What are the best exercises to do?25:20    You are NOT going to get bulky lifting weights!28:36    Alternatives to going to the gym    33:08    What is high-intensity training?41:32    What is the minimum exercise needed to have a positive health impact?47:27    How does fasted training affect women?51:36    SummaryMentioned in today’s episode:Hailey Happens FitnessLes MillsTrain with JoanAnd these books by Dr. Stacy Sims:Next Level RoarIs there a nutrition topic you’d like us to explore? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it. Episode transcripts are available here.
If you thought coffee was just a caffeine kick, think again. Prof. Tim Spector & coffee expert James Hoffmann explore the intricate relationship between coffee and health.They uncover truths and myths about caffeine and describe coffee’s fascinating role in improving gut health.Tim also shares exciting news about soon-to-be published research. The topic: coffee and the gut microbiome. Plus, James brews coffee live in the studio and helps us understand the different coffee variants. He even dives into the world of coffee kombucha.James Hoffmann is an English barista, YouTuber, entrepreneur, coffee consultant, and author. He came to prominence after winning the World Barista Championship in 2007 and is credited as a pioneer of Britain's third-wave coffee movement.Tim is a professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London, director of the Twins UK study, scientific co-founder of ZOE, and one of the world’s leading researchers. If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Find top tips for gut health from ZOE Science and Nutrition — download our FREE gut guide. Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00    Introduction01:50    Quickfire Questions04:24    Why are we all so obsessed with coffee?05:02    What are the health benefits associated with coffee?    06:40    There is a lot more fiber in coffee than you think09:47    The effects of caffeine and gender differences12:31    Why is coffee full of polyphenols?15:12     Tim’s new research teaser21:21    What is the health relationship between fiber, microbes and our bodies?27:32    Should we all start drinking coffee and should we choose decaf?31:52    Modern coffee is all about flavor33:03    Does the way that we make coffee impact our health?37:55    James explains his mini laboratory!43:42    Why is coffee not regulated in coffee shop chains?44:35 What's the best way to make coffee?44:40    Coffee #1 Filter Coffee47:10    Coffee #2 Decaf Coffee51:00    Coffee #3 Instant Coffee1:00:50  How does caffeine affect high blood pressure?1:05:36  SummaryMentioned in today’s episode: How to Make the Best Coffee at Home by James HoffmanEditorial correction: James refers to chlorogenic acid as a polyphenol. We have since learnt that this is incorrect. Rather, it is a phenolic compound or a phenolic acid. James has shared this short video on his YouTube channel clarifying this: William: ZOE on Instagram: transcripts are available here
Live more healthy years

Live more healthy years


Do you want to live to 100? Dan Buettner may be able to help. Dietary patterns, community, environment, and stress management play pivotal roles in longevity, and he’s studied the longest living people on earth. From Sardinia's matriarchal villages to Okinawa's garden-rich diets, this episode takes us on a tour of insights. It's not just about living longer, it's about thriving.In today’s episode, Jonathan is joined by Dan Buettner and Prof. Tim Spector to discuss the secrets of a longer, healthier life. Together, they journey through the world’s blue zones, rare global hotspots where celebrating your 100th birthday is common. The guests also address the threats to these longevity havens and the decline of traditional diets.Dan Buettner is an American National Geographic fellow and New York Times bestselling author. He’s also an explorer, educator, and creator of the Netflix series “Live to 100,” which discovers five unique communities where people live extraordinarily long and vibrant lives.Tim Spector is a professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London, director of the Twins UK study, scientific co-founder of ZOE, and one of the world’s leading researchers. He's also the author of Food for Life, his latest book on nutrition and health.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Gut health tips from ZOE Science & Nutrition: Download our FREE gut guide.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:09 Quickfire questions02:33 What are Blue Zones?04:43 Why do people in Blue Zones live longer?06:48 What is a Centenarian?09:00 What are Blue Zone diets?11:49 Foods for longevity15:03 Why are these foods good for us?19:15 Why Blue Zone diets are seasonal and inexpensive 22:30 Is eating meat 5 times a month healthy for us?27:42 Why are the Blue Zones disappearing?31:25 Blue Zone tactics to reduce stress36:02 Can stress reduce life expectancy?40:36 Why unconscious physical activity is best45:07 How can we make our lives more ‘Blue Zone’ like?47:23 The number one thing you can do to add years to your life is…48:53 Dan's stress reduction techniques51:39 What is Dan’s daily diet?53:16 SummaryMentioned in today's episode:Telomere shortening and the transition to family caregiving in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study from PLOS OneBooks and series from Dan Buettner:The Blue Zones Challenge: A 4-Week Plan for a Longer, Better LifeThe Blue Zones Secrets for Living Longer: Lessons From the Healthiest Places on Eartha...
We've probably all heard of “antihistamines,” medications that can ease symptoms of hay fever and other allergies. But what is “histamine”? It’s a vital chemical that our bodies produce, and it plays a role in a number of functions that support our health. Histamine intolerance seems to be increasingly common, but it’s difficult to diagnose. Some people may not be aware that they have it or how to treat it.In today’s episode of ZOE Science & Nutrition, Jonathan speaks with Dr. Will Bulsiewicz, ZOE’s U.S. medical director, to learn more about this flourishing area of research — and the best ways to identify and treat histamine intolerance.Will is a board-certified gastroenterologist, and New York Times bestselling author of the microbiome book Fiber Fueled.If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Also, find top tips for gut health from ZOE Science & Nutrition: Download our FREE gut guide.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Mentioned in today’s episode: Resistant potato starch supplementation reduces serum histamine levels in healthy adults with links to attenuated intestinal permeability published in Journal of Functional FoodsHistamine and histamine intolerance published in The American Journal of Clinical NutritionHistamine intolerance: The current state of the art published in BiomoleculesIs there a nutrition topic you’d like us to cover? Email us at and we’ll do our best to cover it.Episode transcripts are available here.
Stress is a main factor contributing to ill health, and Dr. Rangan Chatterjee believes that it’s the number-one cause of the illnesses he treats. In today's episode of ZOE Science & Nutrition, Rangan sheds light on the causes of stress, ranging from sleep deprivation and overwhelming workloads to a lack of quality time with others.You’ll learn how “microdoses” of stress can reach a tipping point, why recognizing these doses is key, and which powerful strategies can help you cope.Are you ready to transform your relationship to stress?Dr. Rangan Chatterjee is regarded as one of the most influential medical doctors in the U.K. He wants to change how medicine is practiced for years to come, and his mission is to help 100 million people around the globe live better lives. He’s a professor of health communication and education at the University of Chester, and he hosts one of the most listened-to health podcasts in the U.K. and Europe — Feel Better, Live More has had over 200 million listens to date and is listened to and watched by over 8 million people every month.  If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Find 10 tips for a healthier life from ZOE Science & Nutrition — download our FREE guide.Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 Introduction01:24   Quickfire Questions04:24   What is stress?08:00 Our bodies respond to physical and emotional stress in a similar way10:48 How much stress is bad for us?16:17 How do micro stress doses affect us?20:08 Modern life stress is different!23:16 Stress is the number 1 cause of disease today29:37 Do women and men perceive stress in the same way?30:54 Breathing techniques for stress reduction36:28 Movement and exercise for stress reduction41:32   How to make new behaviors into habits43:37   The impact of human touch49:04   The power of journaling52:54 SummaryMentioned in today’s episode: The impact of daily gentle touch stimulation on maternal-infant physiological and behavioral regulation and resilience from Infant Mental Health Journal Fogg Behavior Model from behaviourmodel.orgThe Stress Solution and Feel Better in 5 by Dr. Rangan ChatterjeeEpisode transcripts are available here.Is there a nutrition topic you’d like us to explore? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it. 
They’re not a plant or an animal — fungi are their very own kingdom of life. And their unique composition means they offer novel, often unbelievable, benefits to our health. Certain species of fungi are currently used to treat conditions ranging from cancer to depression. The love of mushrooms (or mycophilia) has grown in recent years. And at the heart of this movement is biologist Dr. Merlin Sheldrake, author of the bestseller Entangled Life: How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds and Shape Our Futures. In today’s episode of ZOE Science & Nutrition, Jonathan, Merlin, and ZOE Co-Founder Prof. Tim Spector ask: Why are mushrooms so special?If you want to uncover the right foods for your body, head to, and get 10% off your personalized nutrition program.Download our FREE guide — Top 10 Tips to Live Healthier: Follow ZOE on Instagram.Timecodes:00:00 - Introduction 1:42 - Quickfire round3:04 - What are fungi?8:40 - The connection between fungi, plants & gut health14:10 - The human impact on fungi19:41 - Mushrooms and mental health 28:01 - Fungi as medicine35:34 - Why should we eat mushrooms40:39 - How to introduce more mushrooms into your diet46:56 - How often should you eat mushrooms51:17 - Summary56:01 - OutroMentioned in today’s episode: Potential role of ergothioneine rich mushroom as anti-aging candidate through elimination of neuronal senescent cells from Brain ResearchMedicinal mushrooms in adjuvant cancer therapies: An approach to anticancer effects and presumed mechanisms of action from NutrireImmunomodulatory effect of mushrooms and their bioactive compounds in cancer: A comprehensive review from Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Episode transcripts are available here.Is there a nutrition topic you’d like us to explore? Email us at, and we’ll do our best to cover it. 
Comments (48)


خوراکیهای مفید برای پیشگیری از پوکی استخوان 👍

Jun 9th


very important information ,thanks ZOE 🌺🌼💖

May 28th

Carpenter Carpenter

The carnivore diet, heralded as a panacea by some, faces scrutiny as its proponents claim miraculous health benefits while skeptics question its sustainability and potential risks. Advocates argue for its simplicity and purported improvement in autoimmune conditions and weight loss. However, critics cite concerns about nutritional deficiencies, lack of fiber, and long-term health consequences such as heart disease and cancer. Amidst the debate, sites like provide platforms for both sides to present their arguments, offering research-backed insights and personal anecdotes. As discussions persist, the carnivore diet remains exposed to ongoing examination, revealing both its promises and pitfalls.

May 26th


Don't make it too complicated. The key is you need to go low carb, once you eat low carb and stop snacking, you'll naturally intermittent fast. Just follow your feelings. Easy.

Apr 11th


is he Iranian? great👏👏

Mar 28th
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Mar 16th

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Mar 10th
Reply (1)

Jannat Natsheh

thank you🍀

Feb 24th

Untuk Mu

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Feb 11th

Untuk Mu

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Feb 11th

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Jan 29th

Lisa Brooks

surprised you didn't do more research before recording this. you don't know what you're talking about at all. I'm not even advocating carnivore but this was hardly a refutation.

Jan 27th

Chemical Bull

Your insights have been incredibly helpful. Thank you for sharing!

Jan 19th

Stephen Wilson

it would have been interesting to consider transplant recipients who have to take powerful immunosuppressants to prevent rejection. so due to a (necessary) medical intervention rather than inflammation. Emphatic dietary advice firmly discourages fermented foods. any comment in the light of this fascinating podcast

Jan 6th

Sharon McKenzie

why would eating meat which was a major component that the human species evolved on be bad for us? doesn't make sense! I'd give the ultra processed seed spreads a miss too rather than reducing butter. not good information given here.

Dec 3rd

Carlos Barron

"ZOE Science & Nutrition" is an exceptional podcast that delves deep into the intricate connection between science and nutrition, offering listeners a comprehensive understanding of how our bodies interact with the food we consume. The dynamic duo behind the podcast, whose expertise shines through, creates a captivating and informative experience for both novices and seasoned health enthusiasts. The podcast excels in breaking down complex scientific concepts into digestible information, making it accessible to a broad audience. Jason and Travis Kelce's ability to blend their in-depth knowledge with a conversational and engaging tone is truly commendable.

Dec 2nd

Kathrin Breitenbach

OMG this was an awesome episode! really interesting and super fun at the same time! I wish I'd had professors like Christopher in med school 😃😍👍💪

Nov 21st

Carlos Barron

I absolutely love the "ZOE Science & Nutrition" podcast! It's a fantastic resource for anyone looking to gain a deeper understanding of the intricate relationship between science and nutrition. The hosts do an exceptional job of breaking down complex scientific concepts into easily digestible and practical information for their listeners. What sets this podcast apart is the emphasis on personalized nutrition, backed by cutting-edge research. The discussions on how our bodies respond to different foods and how to optimize our diets based on individual biomarkers are not only fascinating but also incredibly insightful for making better dietary choices.

Nov 4th

Jessica Logan

Outstanding episode! I believe in this connection wholeheartedly. Thank you.

Oct 3rd

Sahar Davari

Hi many thanks for all your podcasts episodes. what is the Instagram page please?

Sep 26th