Nephritic Syndrome

Nephritic Syndrome

Update: 2023-05-29


Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms that result from damage to the kidneys and is often confused with nephritic syndrome in fatigue syndrome there is a substantial amount of protein being lost through the kidneys in the urine defined as more than 3.5 grams per day this leads to hypoalbuminemia a low level of albumin in the blood as albumin is the most abundant protein normally in the blood these two are defining features in nephrotic syndrome nephritic syndrome is different in that there is less proteinuria but also the presence of hematuria and red blood cell or white blood cell casts in the urine hypertension and oliguria which is a reduced urine output typically between 80 and 400 ml per day the unit of the kidney is the nephron and normally in the glomerulus of the Nephron there is a specialized membrane that forms the filter made up of a fenestrated endothelium the Maryland basement membrane and the foot processes of podocytes which are cells that wrap around the capillary giving this additional filtration layer all together these structures normally act as a filter and prevent large molecules from passing through into the Bowman's capsule and renal tubules they have a net negative charge which may mean that they can repel other negatively charged molecules albumin is negatively charged in the fatigue syndrome there is sufficient injury to these structures to change the permeability and allow albumin and other molecules to pass into the urine leading to hypoalbuminemia the signs and symptoms linked to hypoalbuminemia which includes peripheral edema and fluid overload particularly in children this can be evident as facial swelling but can also occur in adults particularly around the eyes fluid overload can mean weight gain peripheral edema and even the development of ascites or pleural effusion which can manifest as shortness of breath known as this near the reduction in the blood levels of albumin causes the oncotic pressure of the blood 24 meaning fluid will more readily leak into the surrounding tissues causing edema this is sensed as hypovolemia because less fluid is in the vessels which then triggers the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system causing retention of salt and water this is known as the underfill hypothesis while another is the

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Nephritic Syndrome

Nephritic Syndrome